بازخورد تصحیحی؛ چرایی و چگونگی ارائه آن در کلاس‌های آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی‌زبانان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد آموزش زبان فارسی به غیر فارسی زبانان، دانشکده ادبیات فارسی و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 دانشیار گروه زبان‌شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات فارسی و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی - مدیر هستة گروه پژوهش های بنیادی برای توسعۀ آموزش زبان فارسی به خارجیان

چکیده

یکی از مباحث مجادله‌آمیز در تاریخ آموزش زبان دوّم/ خارجی، مسئله خطا و تصحیح آن بوده است که منجر به پژوهش‌های مختلفی شده است. به اعتقاد برخی از محققان، بازخورد تصحیحی در کلاس جزئی از فرایند طبیعی یادگیری زبان است و انواع خطاهایی که زبان‌آموزان مرتکب می‌شوند نیز نشانه‌هایی از فرایند تکوین زبان دوم آن‌ها است. ازآنجاکه نظریه‌های مختلف زبان دوم‌آموزی مثل دستور جهانی، تعاملی شناختی و فرهنگی اجتماعی، دربارۀ اهمیت بازخورد تصحیحی دیدگاه‌های متفاوتی دارند، لذا هدف این پژوهش علاوه بر معرفی این نظریه‌ها، توصیف انواع بازخوردها به همراه مثال‌های مختلف در کلاس‌های فارسی آموزان خارجی است. این پژوهش میدانی، از نوع مشاهده کلاسی – تحقیق کلاسی است. در این مقاله، بر منابعی که در فاصله زمانی 1977 تا 2016 به چاپ رسیده‌اند، تمرکز شده است. نتایج بررسی‌ این منابع حاکی از آن است که در کلاس‌های زبانِ دوم‌آموزی به‌طور عام شش نوع بازخورد به نام‌های صریح، غیرصریح، درخواست توضیح، فرازبانی، فراخوانی و تکرار، هم‌چنین در کلاس‌های فارسی آموزان خارجی، علاوه بر این‌ها، دو نوع دیگر به نام‌های «بازخوردِ همدرس» و «تصحیح با تغییر نوبت‌دهی» بکار رفته است.

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