Educational Styles as Perceived by Tehran Pre-University Students

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 Associate professor at Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr branch

2 Assistant professor at Islamic Azad University, Khodabandeh branch

3 University Instructor


The present study explores parents’ educational styles (or ‘parenting styles’ as used by previous researchers) as perceived by their pre-university-aged children. Sample size formula was administered to determine the number of participants; accordingly, 800 (380 males and 420 female) students studying at Tehran pre-university schools were selected through stratified random sampling. Participants were given a researcher-made, 35-item questionnaire devised to measure parenting styles. Data was then analyzed using the Factor Analysis method. Findings revealed four distinguished parenting styles, i.e. Decisive-kind, Decisive-unkind, Permissive-kind & Permissive-unkind styles.


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