Educational Styles as Perceived by Tehran Pre-University Students

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Associate professor at Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr branch

2 Assistant professor at Islamic Azad University, Khodabandeh branch

3 University Instructor

چکیده

The present study explores parents’ educational styles (or ‘parenting styles’ as used by previous researchers) as perceived by their pre-university-aged children. Sample size formula was administered to determine the number of participants; accordingly, 800 (380 males and 420 female) students studying at Tehran pre-university schools were selected through stratified random sampling. Participants were given a researcher-made, 35-item questionnaire devised to measure parenting styles. Data was then analyzed using the Factor Analysis method. Findings revealed four distinguished parenting styles, i.e. Decisive-kind, Decisive-unkind, Permissive-kind & Permissive-unkind styles.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Becker, W.C. (1971). Parents Are Teachers: A Child Management Program. Illinois: Research Press.

Bell, S.M (2005). The development of concept of object as related to infantmother attachment, www.Eric.com.

Braxton, R. (2005). Parents Guide to Child discipline. New York: Howthorn Books Inc. Publishers.

Cantor, N. (1953). The Teaching Learning Process. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dreikurs, R. (1970). A Parent’s Guide to Child Discipline. New York: Howthorn Books Inc. Publishers.

Eccles, I. S. & Harold, R.D. (2005). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers College Record, 94. 568-587.

Gatzels, J.W., and Jackson, P.W. (2001) Creativity and Intelligence. New York: John Willy.

Ghaemi, Ali (1384), Family and Child Eduvation, (fourth edition), Tehran: Parents and Educator Association.

Ginott, H. (1965). Between Parent and Child. New York: Avon Books. Gordon, T. (1970). Parent Effectiveness Training. New York: Peter. H. Wyden, Inc.

Gutman, L.M. & Midgley, C. (2000). The role of protective factors in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 223-248.

Khorshidi, A. (1384), Parents’ Behavior, Children’s Education. (third edition), Tehran: Yastarun Publications.

Khorshidi, A. (1386), Talking and Behaving Ways with Children. (third edition), Tehran: Yastarun Publications.

Ma, X. (2003). Dropping out of advanced mathematics: The effects of parental involvement. Teachers College Record, 101(1), 60-81.

Mirkamali, S.M. and Khorshidi, A. (1387), The Methods of Creativity Training in Educational System. Tehran: Yastarun Publications.

Muller, C. (2000). Leveling the playing field? Students’ educational attainment and states’ performance testing. Sociology of Education, 73(April), 196-218.

Nakagawa, K. (2003). Unthreading the ties that bind: Questioning the discourse of parent involvement. Educational Policy, 14(4), 443-472.

Nelson, R.W. and Israel, A.C. (2002). Behavior Disorders of Childhood. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Pena, D.C. (2007). Parent involvement: influencing factors and implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1).

Postle Thwait. T. N. (2004). Educational achievement comparative studies. www.iric.

Renzulli, J.S. (1994). New around the world. Gifted Education International. Vol.10, PP. 33-45.

Shaw, D. (2006) Parent Effectiveness Training. New York: Peter H. Wyden Inc.

Shaw, D (2007) University of Pittsburg. USA. Parenting Programs and Skills and Impact on the Social Emotional and Educational Development of, Young children. Pittsburg University Press.

Shumow, L. (2005). Parents’ at-home and at-school academic involvement with young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21, 68-91.

Slavin, R.E (2003). Educational Psychology Theory and Practice. New York: John Hopkins University Press.

Trusty, J. & Harris, M. B.C. (2002). Lost talent: Predictions of the stability of educational expectations across adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(3), 359-382.